Because New York's population grew more slowly than other states, it's losing two of its 29 congressional districts. In the Hudson Valley, the most visible change to the political landscape is the elimination of the 22nd District, represented by Rep. Maurice Hinchey (D-Hurley), which stretched up to the Southern Tier.
The elimination of the district, approved by a federal three-judge panel in March, means that the region has one less vote in Congress come January.
The changes have vastly expanded the region's remaining districts and shaken up the political landscape.
Hayworth and Maloney
Topping the list of congressional races in the region is the nationally watched 18th District matchup between Rep. Nan Hayworth (R-Bedford) and Democrat Sean Patrick Maloney, a former top aide to President Bill Clinton.
Hayworth, 52, was swept to power in 2010 on a wave of Tea Party-infused anti-incumbent sentiment. She made opposition to President Barack Obama's health care law a major focus of her first term in office.
Maloney, 46, is a Manhattan attorney who worked as a top aide to Clinton and former Govs. Eliot Spitzer and David Paterson. He ran unsuccessfully in a 2006 primary for attorney general. On the campaign trail, he focused on education and job creation. He has been critical of Hayworth's conservative positions on health care and social issues.
Although Hayworth's campaign has labeled Maloney a "carpetbagger" -- charging he moved into the sprawling district to run for the congressional office, he has portrayed the freshman lawmaker as a Tea Party radical who has ignored her constituents while indulging herself in partisan bickering in Washington. Both have attacked each other in TV ads and mailers.
Besides a flood of outside money from Democratic and Republican super PACs, both campaigns have been raising big money in the high-stakes race. Hayworth has raised $2.73 million as of Sept. 30, including $585,197 in the most recent quarter, Federal Election Commission filings show. Maloney's campaign has raised nearly $1.6 million to date.
A recent Siena College poll indicated that Hayworth's double-digit lead over Maloney among likely voters in the district has narrowed and now stands at 49 to 42 percent. A Siena poll in September had given Hayworth a 13-point lead.
The new 18th Congressional District includes parts of Westchester, Orange, Putnam and Dutchess counties.
Lowey, Carvin and Morganthaler
In the 17th Congressional District, veteran Rep. Nita Lowey (D-Harrison) faces a challenge from Joe Carvin, a Republican and Rye town supervisor, and Frank Morganthaler, a retired FDNY lieutenant running on an independent line.
Lowey, 75, is running for her 13th term. She has represented parts of southern Westchester County since 1988, most recently as the 18th District congresswoman, and has campaigned on her record as a ranking member of Congress who has brought plenty of federal aid to the district.
Carvin, 58, is hedge fund manager -- he describes himself as fluent in five languages -- who has focused mostly on bread-and-butter economic concerns such as job creation, government spending and the national debt. He lives in Rye with his wife and two daughters.
Morganthaler, 64, is a retired Marine corporal who fought in the Vietnam War. Morganthaler lives in Hawthorne with his wife and daughter and works as a private investigator and emergency management consultant in New York City.
Lowey has raised more than $1.6 million for her re-election campaign, compared with Carvin's $1.2 million, which included a $1 million loan to his own campaign. Morganthaler hasn't raised any money for his campaign, filings show.
The new 17th Congressional District includes most of Rockland and parts of southern Westchester County.
Engel, 65, is a Riverdale attorney who is seeking his 13th term, having represented the region for more than two decades.
McLaughlin, 44, is a Bronx native and a commercial real estate developer who has worked at the Federal Reserve Bank in New York and the Chicago Board of Trade. He also has worked for a financial software company and a private equity company.
Diferia, 51, is a Yonkers native who graduated from the College of New Rochelle and earned a master's degree in public administration from Walden University. He has taught government and politics in colleges throughout New York.
The new 16th District includes a large section of southern Westchester County and the Bronx.
Gipson and Schreibman
In the new 19th Congressional District, which includes parts of Ulster, Broome, Delaware, Sullivan and Otsego counties, incumbent Rep. Chris Gibson (R-Kinderhook) faces a challenge from Democrat Julian Schreibman, a Kingston attorney.
Gibson, 48, was elected to Congress in 2010 to represent the 20th Congressional District, which has been changed under redistricting. A retired Army colonel, Gibson holds a doctorate in government from Cornell University in Ithaca and has taught at West Point Military Academy. He's a native of Kinderhook, where he lives with his wife.
Schreibman, 39, is a former prosecutor, counsel for the Central Intelligence Agency and past chairman of the Ulster County Democratic Committee. He lives in Stone Ridge with his wife.
On the campaign, Schreibman has attacked Gibson for voting for Wisconsin Congressman and vice presidential nominee Paul Ryan's Medicare plan. Gibson has distanced himself from it by talking of a "bipartisan solution" for Medicare.
Both candidates have flooded the airways with attack ads. Gibson has spent $1.7 million to date, while Schreibman has spent about $1.1 million, according to the latest filings with the Federal Election Commission. Republican and Democratic super PACs also have spent millions on TV ads. A recent Siena College poll found Gibson leading Schreibman by 5 points.