Jack Brooks, who served 42 years in the U.S. House of Representatives as an unpredictable but influential Texas Democrat, and who was one of the few politicians who cast fear in President Lyndon B. Johnson, died Tuesday at a hospital in Beaumont, Texas. He was 89.
The Jefferson County Sheriff's Department in Texas issued a statement confirming his death but did not provide a cause.
First elected to Congress from a southeastern Texas district in 1952, Brooks became a protege of two fellow Texans, Johnson -- then a powerful senator -- and Sam Rayburn, the longtime Democratic leader and onetime speaker of the House.
Brooks became a committee leader in Congress, first of the House Committee on Government Operations and later of the Judiciary Committee, and was so effective behind the scenes that one of Johnson's former aides told The Washington Post in 1977 that Brooks was "one of the few men LBJ was ever afraid of."
On Nov. 22, 1963, Brooks was with Johnson in the motorcade in Dallas when President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. In the famous photograph taken aboard Air Force One when then-Vice President Johnson takes the presidential oath of office, Brooks is standing directly behind the grieving first lady, Jacqueline Kennedy.
As a member of the House Judiciary Committee, Brooks helped write the articles of impeachment against President Richard M. Nixon in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal and was referred to by Nixon as "the executioner."
Brooks was an old-style politician who favored assertive talk, bold legislative action and a smoldering cigar clamped between his teeth. He was called "the last of his breed" long before he lost a bid for re-election in 1994.
"Jack Brooks was a complete contrarian, a mass of contradictions," Ross K. Baker, a congressional historian at Rutgers University in New Jersey, said in an interview. "He was a civil rights advocate and strongly pro-gun. He was fiercely combative, but he was someone who could easily cross party lines."
Brooks began defying expectations early in his career by refusing to sign the 1956 Southern Manifesto, a pact among Southern congressmen to support segregation. He was one of only 11 congressmen from the South to vote for the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964.
He was a strong advocate of NASA, whose Johnson Space Center in Houston was for a period in his district. But as chairman of the Government Operations Committee from 1975 to 1988, he exposed billions of dollars in government waste. He said the Navy was spending $660 on ashtrays and the State Department had ordered $2 million worth of silverware.
"Brooks finagles and manipulates behind the scenes in the most adroit fashion," former House speaker Jim Wright (D-Texas) said in 1994. "He knows how to operate, and he will not settle for mediocrity."
In 1973, Brooks questioned the director of the General Services Administration, Arthur F. Sampson, who claimed that $10 million of taxpayer-supported improvements to Nixon's private homes in California and Florida actually lowered their value.
"Oh, really," Brooks said. "Well, Mr. Sampson, I'd like you to come down to my farm and desecrate it a little bit."