Interactive DNA Timeline
2000 Francis Collins from the publicly-funded Human Genome Project and J. Craig Venter, head of the private effort by Celera Genomics, jointly announce a working draft of the human genome. President Bill Clinton, Dr. Craig Venter, left, and Dr. Francis Collins,right, talk Monday, June 26, 2000 at the joint announcement on the initial sequencing of the human genome.
1996 Ian Wilmut and colleagues produce a sheep named Dolly, the first mammal clone.
1990 Scientists at the National Institutes of Health perform the first successful gene therapy on a four-year-old girl with an inherited immune deficiency disorder. Photo: (L-R) Dr. Kenneth Culver, Dr. R. Michael Blaese, an immunology expert at the National Cancer Institute and Dr. W. French Anderson, a researcher at National Institutes of Health discuss genetic therapy treatment in their labratory on Sept. 20, 1990.
1984 British researcher Alec Jeffreys invents genetic finger-printing; forensic DNA tests are first used in a U.S. court-room three years later to convict a Florida teenager of sexual battery. At right, getting a DNA sample for testing at the Dolan DNA Learning Center in Cold Spring Harbor
1968 James Watson becomes director of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and publishes "The Double Helix", his account of discovering DNA s structure At right, a copy of "The Double Helix" on display at the Dolan DNA Learning Center in Cold Spring Harbor
1962 James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins are awarded the the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material" Photo: Nobel Prize winners pose before the prize ceremony at the Royal Concert Hall in Stockholm, Dec. 10, 1962. From left, are: Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, John Steinbeck, James Watson, Max Perutz and John Kendrew.
1953 On April 25, 1953, Watson and Crick publish "A Structure for DNA" in the journal "Nature"
1952 Chemist Rosalind Franklin obtains the best-ever image of DNA, revealing a regular repeating unit of molecular building blocks corresponding to its nucleotide components. Her finding is key in deducing DNA s structure.
Watson and Crick begin their collaboration at Cambridge University. At right, Crick, left, and Watson at Cambridge in the 1950s.
1865 Augustinian monk Gregor Mendel discovers that physical traits in pea plants are linked to discrete hereditary factors (later known as genes), inherited from both parents.
1859 Charles Darwin (1809-1882) publishes On the Origin of Species, detailing his theory of evolution
THE DOUBLE HELIX AT 50 An Interactive DNA Timeline At right is a replica model of the DNA helix made by James Watson and Francis Crick. It is on display at the Dolan DNA Learning Center in Cold Spring Harbor.