Of all the kind words expressed Tuesday on Marvin Miller's death at the age of 95, two stood out.
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The debt of gratitude owed to Miller, whose tenure as executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association forever altered the business of professional sports, is impossible to calculate.
But in winning the battle for free agency in baseball, Miller helped grant players the right to eventually choose their workplace and earn as much as a competitive market would bear. That transformed athletes into multimillionaires, a process Miller began when he took over the players union in 1966.
Miller died of liver cancer early Tuesday morning in his Manhattan home.
If not for Miller's revolutionary efforts, players such as Dickey would be in much different situations and radically different tax brackets. When Miller was hired, and teams still used the reserve clause to control players, the minimum salary was $6,000, with an average of $19,000.
When Miller left in 1982, the average salary was $241,000, and it has skyrocketed since, with a present-day average of more than $3 million and $480,000 minimum. It didn't come without a price. Miller's hard-nosed tactics resulted in three work stoppages for baseball, including the first strike in pro sports history in 1972. The endgame was an unqualified victory that the players enjoy now more than ever.
"His influence transcends baseball," current MLBPA executive director Michael Weiner said. "Marvin, without question, is largely responsible for ushering in the modern era of sports, which has resulted in tremendous benefits to players, owners and fans of all sports.
"It was an honor and a privilege to have known Marvin. The industry has never witnessed a more honorable man, and his passion for helping others and his principled resolve serve as the foundation for the MLBPA to this day. Marvin was a champion among champions, and his legacy will live on forever."
That legacy had relatively humble beginnings. Initially, there was opposition to Miller -- a labor economist for the United Steelworkers of America -- as players and owners shared concern about bringing in someone with a strong union background. Mostly, it came from the owners, who had obvious reasons to fear Miller. He seemed to revel in the confrontation between the sides, just as his successors in that role have done.
"Marvin possessed a combination of integrity, intelligence, eloquence, courage and grace that is simply unmatched in my experience," said former MLBPA executive director Don Fehr, who worked under Miller as general counsel from 1977-82.
"Without question, Marvin had more positive influence on Major League Baseball than any other person in the last half of the 20th century. It was a rare privilege for me to be able to work for him and with him. All of us who knew him will miss him enormously."
Miller's part in two landmark cases against MLB ultimately paved the way for free agency. First was Cardinals outfielder Curt Flood, who refused to report after he was traded to the Phillies in 1969. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the reserve clause in that case, but the foundation had been shaken, and Miller's later backing of two pitchers who didn't sign their contract renewals -- Andy Messersmith and Dave McNally -- finally broke it in 1975.
The sporting world has never been the same.
"Marvin Miller forged wings for modern-day baseball, the 'Wright' of baseball's soaring flight," agent Scott Boras said on Twitter. "Thank you."
Despite his tremendous influence on the game, Miller has been kept out of Cooperstown (he received 43 percent of the required 75 percent of votes in 2003, and 63 percent in 2007), showing his reign generated plenty of animosity among baseball's power brokers, many of whom were angered by his goals and his methods.
With baseball's extended period of labor peace, maybe time will heal those wounds and the Hall will open its doors to Miller.
"Marvin Miller was a highly accomplished executive and a very influential figure in baseball history," commissioner Bud Selig said in a statement. "He made a distinct impact on this sport, which is reflected in the state of the game today. Surely major-league players of the last half-century have greatly benefited from his contributions."
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