The two-time Pro Bowl selection caught 943 career passes for 12,061 yards and 66 touchdowns.
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"I'm done," Mason said. "I won't be playing football. I only knew one play to play football, going all-out and having fun out there."
Mason caught 19 passes for 170 yards this season with the Jets and Texans.
Mason plans to pursue a career in broadcasting and has appeared on NFL Network recently.
"I'm spending some time at home and doing as much as I can to really get entrenched in some broadcasting network whether it be nationally or do something here locally," Mason said. "I enjoy it a lot."
"I leave it healthy and able to run and walk and not take a half-hour or 45 minutes to get out of bed," Mason said. "I don't have lingering pains as of now. Me leaving now, even though it didn't happen the way I wanted it to happen, I had a good run. It was fun while it lasted."