President Donald Trump has signed numerous executive actions since taking office, issuing them to drive policy and put his stamp on the presidency.
The umbrella term executive actions covers executive orders, which the president uses to establish policies and manage the federal government's operations; presidential memorandums, which tend to be more regulatory but carry the same weight; and proclamations, which are mostly ceremonial.
Here is a look at some of Trump's notable executive actions to date, including his initial and revised travel bans and withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Links for the documents are from the official Federal Register.
Rebuking Obama on climate change, boosting coal
WHAT: Trump signed an executive order aimed at boosting U.S. energy independence that unravels regulations former President Barack Obama adopted to fight climate change -- and begins a review of Obama's Clean Power Plan, the Democrat's signature effort to curb carbon emissions. The March 28, 2017, order eliminates numerous restrictions on fossil fuel production, with Trump saying it will stimulate the industry by ending "the war on coal" and "theft of American prosperity." It also changes how the "social cost" of greenhouse gases is calculated.
Trump signed the order at the Environmental Protection Agency's headquarters in Washington. He is seen there with EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt, Vice President Mike Pence and coal miners whose jobs he said he was protecting.
SIGNIFICANCE: The move represents a rebuke of Obama's climate policies -- and Trump took things further on June 1, when he withdrew the country from the 2015 global Paris Agreement. With both actions, Trump fulfilled more of his campaign pledges.
QUOTE: "No single regulation threatens our miners, energy workers and companies more than this crushing attack on American industry," the president said of the Clean Power Plan.
WHAT CRITICS SAY: "Gutting the Clean Power Plan is a colossal mistake and defies science itself. Erasing climate change may take place in Donald Trump's mind, but nowhere else," California Gov. Jerry Brown said.
Trump's travel ban, take 2
WHAT: Trump signed a revised version of his travel ban on March 6, 2017. It took Iraq off the list of Muslim-majority countries from which foreign nationals are temporarily banned, while keeping the other six, and stipulated that U.S. permanent residents or those with valid visas won't be affected. It still suspends the admission of refugees for 120 days, but does not indefinitely ban refugees from Syria. And it does not prioritize religious minorities, as the first one did.
SIGNIFICANCE: This was a forced do-over of Trump's travel ban, one of his most attention-getting moves since taking office. The new executive order was crafted to clear legal hurdles, but a judge in Hawaii temporarily blocked it on March 15, hours before it would have taken effect on March 16. A judge in Maryland rejected the ban the next day, one in Virginia sided with the Trump administration on March 24, and the Fourth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Richmond, Virginia, ruled against it on May 25.
Momentum swung back Trump's way on June 26 as the Supreme Court said it would allow a limited version of the 90-day ban on travel from six Muslim-majority countries to take effect. The 120-day ban on refugees is also being allowed on a limited basis. The court will hear full arguments in the case in October.
QUOTE: Trump signed the order behind closed doors, and three Cabinet members appeared before the cameras instead. One of them, Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly, seen above, said, "The fact remains that we are not immune to terrorist threats and that our enemies often use our own freedoms and generosity against us."
WHAT CRITICS SAY: "The Trump administration has conceded that its original Muslim ban was indefensible," said Omar Jadwat of the American Civil Liberties Union. "Unfortunately, it has replaced it with a scaled-back version that shares the same fatal flaws. The only way to actually fix the Muslim ban is not to have a Muslim ban."
Reviewing Dodd-Frank financial oversight law
WHAT: President Donald Trump holds up an executive order directing the Treasury secretary to review the 2010 Dodd-Frank financial oversight law after signing the order in the Oval Office on Feb. 3, 2017. The Dodd-Frank Act toughened financial regulations in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, putting in place tighter curbs on U.S. banks and how they operate; Trump pledged to repeal and replace it during his campaign.
SIGNIFICANCE: In the days before Trump signed the executive order, he said the Obama-era law has been a disaster in restricting banks' activities and that "We're going to be doing a big number on Dodd-Frank." On June 8, the Republican-controlled House voted 233-186 for a bill that would undo much of the banking law. On June 12, the Treasury Department issued the first part of the review Trump ordered, urging changes to banking rules and calling for Congress to take away the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's authority to supervise banks and financial companies. The watchdog agency, created through Dodd-Frank, has been a prime target of GOP lawmakers who accuse it of regulatory overreach.
As a candidate, Trump railed against Wall Street excess and vowed to hold the industry accountable for the crisis.
QUOTES: Trump laid out seven core principles for financial regulation. Two of them are to "make regulation efficient, effective and appropriately tailored" and to "restore public accountability within Federal financial regulatory agencies and rationalize the Federal financial regulatory framework."
WHAT CRITICS SAY: Former Massachusetts Rep. Barney Frank -- the Frank in Dodd-Frank -- said Trump's move contradicted what he said during the campaign "about standing up to Wall Street." He also doesn't think there's support in Congress to repeal the law because "it's popular with their constituents."
Trump's 2-for-1 on regulations
WHAT: President Trump is applauded by small-business leaders after signing an executive order in the Oval Office on Jan. 30, 2017, aimed at significantly cutting regulations. During his campaign, Trump promised a moratorium on new federal regulations not compelled by Congress or public safety. As he put it at a signing for a different executive order on Feb. 24, "Excessive regulation is killing jobs, driving companies out of our country like never before."
SIGNIFICANCE: The move followed the White House's freeze on new or pending regulations until they are reviewed, detailed in a memo from chief of staff Reince Priebus on Trump's first day in office. Trump has said he wants to cut the number of federal regulations by 75 percent. On Feb. 24, he issued another executive order directing agencies to establish their own regulatory reform task force whose goals will include identifying regulations that eliminate jobs or hurt job creation, or are "outdated, unnecessary, or ineffective," and making recommendations. On March 13, Trump ordered the development of a plan to reorganize the executive branch and "eliminate unnecessary agencies" and programs. And on March 27, Trump announced the creation of the White House Office of American Innovation in a presidential memorandum. The office is led by the president's son-in-law and senior adviser, Jared Kushner, and aims to bring business ideas to government.
QUOTE: The Jan. 30 order says "it is important that for every one new regulation issued, at least two prior regulations be identified for elimination." It says that new regulations should not increase overall regulatory costs when offsets are taken into account. And it cites a desire to manage the costs of the private sector required to comply with regulations.
WHAT CRITICS SAY: Public Citizen, the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Communications Workers of America filed a federal lawsuit Feb. 8 seeking to block Trump's two-for-one order. They say it exceeds his constitutional authority and directs agencies to illegally repeal regulations that are needed to protect Americans' health and safety and the environment.
Trump's travel ban
WHAT: On Jan. 27, 2017, Trump, citing terrorism concerns, signed an executive order banning travelers from seven Muslim-majority countries from entering the United States for 90 days, with some visa exceptions; barred the entrance of all refugees for 120 days; and indefinitely banned any refugees from Syria. Above, people demonstrate against the order in lower Manhattan on Jan. 29.
SIGNIFICANCE: Trump's order led to protests around the country and chaos at airports that weekend. Various federal judges intervened. On Feb. 9, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals refused to reinstate his ban, with Trump calling that "A disgraceful decision!" in a tweet the next day. He signed a revised travel ban on March 6, which you can read about above.
QUOTE: "In order to protect Americans, the United States must ensure that those admitted to this country do not bear hostile attitudes toward it and its founding principles. The United States cannot, and should not, admit those who do not support the Constitution, or those who would place violent ideologies over American law."
WHAT CRITICS SAY: "This executive order sends a signal, intended or not, that America does not want Muslims coming into our country," Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) and Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) said in a joint statement. "That is why we fear this executive order may do more to help terrorist recruitment than improve our security."
Trump's border wall
WHAT: On Jan. 25, 2017, Trump signed an executive order to begin planning for the design and construction of his promised wall on the border with Mexico. The order specifies "a contiguous, physical wall or other similarly secure, contiguous, and impassable physical barrier." Above, the border between the U.S. and Tijuana, Mexico, is shown the same day. Trump also called for hiring 5,000 additional U.S. Border Patrol agents -- an increase of about 25 percent.
SIGNIFICANCE: Trump's call for a border wall was one of his most popular campaign proposals among supporters -- and one of his most audacious. His order follows through on that pledge, though many questions remain. The president's first budget proposal on March 16 asked Congress for a $2.6 billion down payment for the wall, which is expected to cost $12 billion to $15 billion or more. It's unclear how much funding Congress will agree to -- but Trump faces a more receptive audience there than in Mexico, which has repeatedly rejected his demand that it pay for the wall. The White House has also floated a 20 percent tax on Mexican imports as a funding possibility. The Border Patrol will need several years to hit Trump's goal of adding 5,000 agents, according to administration officials.
QUOTES: "Beginning today the United States of America gets back control of its borders," Trump declared at the Department of Homeland Security. "We are going to save lives on both sides of the border."
WHAT CRITICS SAY: Domestic critics have argued that a border-long wall is unnecessary -- never mind having U.S. taxpayers pay for it. Mexico's current and some former presidents have loudly opposed the wall, and many Mexicans are calling for a more confrontational attitude with the U.S.
Tightening, and expanding, immigration enforcement
WHAT: Trump signed a wide-ranging executive order to tighten immigration enforcement on Jan. 25, 2017. It broadens the pool of people considered priorities for removal, said "sanctuary cities" and states should be blocked from getting federal grants and called for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement to hire 10,000 more people.
Above, a foreign national is arrested during a targeted enforcement operation by ICE in Los Angeles on Feb. 7, 2017.
SIGNIFICANCE: The order, along with ensuing Department of Homeland Security guidance that was announced Feb. 21, amounts to a sweeping rewrite of the nation's enforcement policies. Any immigrant in the country illegally who is charged or convicted of an offense or suspected of a crime will be an enforcement priority, according to the DHS memos. This replaced Obama administration guidance that focused enforcement on immigrants convicted of serious crimes, those considered national security threats and recent border crossers. The Trump administration has left in place Obama's protections for so-called Dreamers. Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly said in a memo that ICE's director would "expeditiously hire 10,000 agents and officers," which would be an increase of about 50 percent.
New York City, which is a sanctuary city, could ultimately lose millions in federal funds. Under Trump's budget blueprint -- the first step in the process -- nearly all of the NYPD's federal funding would be "eradicated," including $110 million from counterterrorism programs, Police Commissioner James O'Neill said. A judge blocked Trump's order on April 25, however, and the issue is still in court.
QUOTE: "Sanctuary jurisdictions across the United States willfully violate Federal law in an attempt to shield aliens from removal from the United States. These jurisdictions have caused immeasurable harm to the American people and to the very fabric of our Republic."
WHAT CRITICS SAY: "We are going to become this administration's worst nightmare," New York City Council Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito said on March 27, as she and leaders from different cities vowed to defy any crackdown, amid a warning from Attorney General Jeff Sessions that sanctuary cities could lose federal funding if they don't cooperate with immigration authorities.
Moving the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipelines forward
WHAT: Trump signed executive actions on Jan. 24, 2017, that aimed to turn the highly contested Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipelines into reality. Both projects were ultimately opposed by the Obama administration. The $8 billion Keystone XL pipeline to bring oil from Canada's oil sands to Nebraska was halted in late 2015 by Obama, who said it would undercut U.S. efforts to reach a global climate change deal. The $3.8 billion Dakota Access pipeline that would carry oil from North Dakota to Illinois has since been finished, including a section underneath Lake Oahe in North Dakota that has been protested by the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, which gets its drinking water from the lake. Above, the Oceti Sakowin camp where people gathered to protest Dakota Access near Cannon Ball, N.D., is shown on Dec. 3, 2016. That and a much smaller camp nearby were cleared of protesters in late February.
A third Trump memorandum directs all pipelines to be made in the U.S.
SIGNIFICANCE: Trump's efforts to advance both pipelines marked a 180-degree turn from Obama's policies -- and an aggressive remaking of the country's energy policy. On March 24, the Trump administration approved Keystone XL. However, Nebraska's approval is still needed. Trump's administration has given Keystone XL a pass on using only American steel, saying that developer TransCanada already has its steel in hand and it would be too difficult to impose the requirement on a project that's under construction. About half of the pipe is from the U.S. In his Dakota Access memorandum, Trump ordered the Army Corps of Engineers to quickly consider whether to approve the pipeline lake crossing. On Feb. 8, the Corps gave its approval to developer Energy Transfer Partners. The pipeline began moving North Dakota oil to Illinois on June 1. A lawsuit by four Sioux tribes remains in court.
QUOTE: "It's going to be an incredible pipeline," Trump said of Keystone XL.
WHAT CRITICS SAY: Both projects have been loudly opposed on environmental grounds. "Keystone was stopped once before, and it will be stopped again," said Annie Leonard of Greenpeace.
Goodbye, Trans-Pacific Partnership
WHAT: President Donald Trump shows the presidential memorandum withdrawing the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) after he signed the order in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington on Jan. 23, 2017. The 12-nation trade pact was a key part of the Obama administration's pivot to Asia. It was intended to reinforce the U.S.' presence in the region and strengthen the countries' economic ties.
SIGNIFICANCE: Trump fulfilled a central campaign promise with this move, given that he has repeatedly cast the TPP as detrimental to American businesses. The new president also dealt a death blow to the TPP, though President Barack Obama notably did not send the pact to Congress for ratification as the mood in Washington on trade soured.
QUOTE: "It is the policy of my Administration to represent the American people and their financial well-being in all negotiations, particularly the American worker, and to create fair and economically beneficial trade deals that serve their interests. Additionally, in order to ensure these outcomes, it is the intention of my Administration to deal directly with individual countries on a one-on-one (or bilateral) basis in negotiating future trade deals. Trade with other nations is, and always will be, of paramount importance to my Administration and to me, as President of the United States."
WHAT CRITICS SAY: "Every country that went through the process of TPP had to do politically difficult things at home," said Vikram Singh of the Center for American Progress. The former Obama administration official said Trump's withdrawal "shows he cares not a whit about what counterparts in the Asia-Pacific have done to push forward with what was a top U.S. political priority."
Trump takes aim at the Affordable Care Act
WHAT: President Donald Trump signed his first executive order, which targeted the Affordable Care Act, in the Oval Office on Jan. 20, 2017. He is flanked by Vice President Mike Pence and Chief of Staff Reince Priebus.
SIGNIFICANCE: On his first day in office, Trump gave federal agencies broad leeway to chip away at his predecessor's signature health care law -- directing them to grant waivers, exemptions and delays of ACA provisions that would impose costs on states, individuals or health care-related businesses. His order appears to be aimed squarely at undoing the individual mandate, which requires people to carry insurance or face fines. But his directive may not have much impact for 2017, since government rules for this year were already included in contracts signed with insurance companies.
This executive order has since been overshadowed by the the failure and then success of a Republican bill to replace Obamacare. The first version was pulled before a House vote on March 24, then revised and narrowly approved by the House on May 4, with a Rose Garden celebration that critics called premature. Debate on the Senate's health care overhaul could begin Tuesday, June 27.
QUOTES: Trump declared his administration seeks the "prompt repeal" of the Affordable Care Act -- and in the meantime he wants "to minimize the unwarranted economic and regulatory burdens" of the ACA.
WHAT CRITICS SAY: Leslie Dach of the Protect Our Care Coalition called the order "irresponsible," saying in a statement, "While President Trump may have promised a smooth transition, the Executive Order does the opposite, threatening disruption for health providers and patients."