Egyptian expatriates are heading to the polls on Friday to vote to replace ousted leader Hosni Mubarak in what are hoped to be the first genuinely contested presidential elections in the country's history.
The expatriate voting comes a day after two election front-runners, one of Mubarak's former foreign ministers and a moderate Islamist, squared off in the Arab world's first ever presidential debate. The two traded barbs over the role of religion and how to bring democratic reform to Egypt, an often fiery exchange that gave Egyptians a taste of the tactics common to presidential face-offs in the United States and Europe.
Viewers crowded around television sets in outdoor cafes for the four-hour debate, aired Thursday evening on several independent TV channels — a startling new experiment for Egypt after nearly 30 years of authoritarian rule under Mubarak, forced out of power last year after a wave of protests.
For most of Mubarak's rule, he was re-elected in referendums in which he was the only candidate. The last presidential election, in 2005, was the first to allow multiple candidates, but Mubarak was considered a certain winner and campaigning was weak — and a direct debate was out of the question.
The debate, which ran well past midnight, pitted Amr Moussa, who served as Mubarak's foreign minister for 10 years until becoming head of the Arab League in 2001, against Abdel-Moneim Abolfotoh, a moderate Islamist who broke with the Muslim Brotherhood last year. The two are among 13 candidates competing in the election, due to begin on May 23.
The debate repeatedly turned combative, as the two candidates, each standing behind a podium, were also given time to throw questions at each other.
Abolfotoh sought to taint Moussa as a key member and supporter of Mubarak's regime. Moussa, in turn, painted Abolfotoh as beholden to the Muslim Brotherhood and hard-line Islamists.
"My point of reference is the nation, your point of reference is the Brotherhood," the 75-year-old Moussa, who has sought to appeal to Egyptians worried about the rising power of Islamists, told his rival. He pushed Abolfotoh to explain his stance on implementing Islamic Shariah law, suggesting that he had "made commitments" to hard-line Islamists.
"I want to hear one word of opposition you said under Mubarak's regime," Abolfotoh, 60, shot back, pointing out that Moussa said in 2010 that he would back Mubarak for another term as president.
At one Cairo coffee shop near Tahrir Square, the epicenter of the protests that brought down Mubarak, supporters of either candidates broke out in claps and cheers when either candidate hit on the other's perceived weakness— scenes of public support mostly seen in Egypt only around football games.
"This is the first time in the Egyptian and Arab history. We really are changing," said Ahmed Talaat, a 36-year old accountant. "The uprising is really bearing fruit."
The two touched on their economic platforms, the role of the military — which is due to hand over power to whoever wins the presidency — women's role in politics and even on their own health and what salary they would take if they won.
Moussa presented himself as the voice of experience that can bring security to a country rocked by turmoil since Mubarak's fall. Abolfotoh depicted himself as the candidate of the revolution — kicking off the debate with praise for the "martyrs" killed by security forces and troops in protests against Mubarak and against the military that took his place in power.
In his campaign over past months, Abolfotoh has gathered an unusual coalition, with support from some secular liberals, youth who have broken away from the Muslim Brotherhood and some followers of the hard-line Islamist movement known as Salafis.
Moussa stepped down from the Arab League post after Mubarak's fall. He has sought to play up his experience as a diplomat and has played on the fears of many over Islamist domination.
At least one more debate is expected, though it has not been announced which candidates will participate. Along with Moussa and Abolfotoh, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood Mohammad Mursi and Mubarak's last prime minister Ahmed Shafiq are also seen as strong front-runners.
If no candidate emerges with a majority in the May 23-24 first round of voting, a run-off between the top two vote-getters will be held June 16-17.
The expatriate voting meanwhile runs until May 17, with the run-off scheduled for June. 3.
Egypt's election commission says some 700,000 are registered to vote in 166 countries, but the Foreign Ministry puts the number of registered voters at nearly 500,000. Saudi Arabia has the largest number of Egyptian voters.
The number of registered voters is a small proportion of the estimated eight million Egyptians abroad.
In contrast, total turnout among the approximately 50 million Egyptians registered to vote during multiple rounds of elections for two houses of parliament that ran from November to February often topped 60 percent.
It is not clear whether voters abroad are less motivated or whether procedures are complicated.
AP correspondents Maggie Michael and Sarah El Deeb contributed to this report.