VISALIA, Calif. - As the economy tanked during the past two years, a debate has raged over whether immigrants are taking jobs that Americans want. Here, amid the sweltering vineyards of the largest farm state, the answer is "no."
Most Americans simply don't apply for jobs harvesting fruits and vegetables in California, where one of every eight people is out of work, according to government data for a federal seasonal farmworker program analyzed by The Associated Press.
And the few unemployed Americans who apply through official channels usually don't stay on in the fields.
"It's just not something that most Americans are going to pack up their bags and move here to do," said farmer Steve Fortin, who pays $10.25 an hour to foreign workers to trim strawberry plants for six weeks each summer at his nursery near the Nevada border.
He has spent $3,000 this year ensuring domestic workers have first dibs on his jobs in the sparsely populated stretch of the state, advertising in newspapers and on an electronic job registry.
But he hasn't had any takers, and only one farmer in the state hired anyone using a little-known, little-used program to hire foreign farmworkers the legal way - by applying for guest worker visas.
Since January, California farmers have posted ads for 1,160 farmworker positions open to U.S. citizens and legal residents seeking work.
One grower brought on 36 U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents. No one else hired any.
The California figures represent a small sample of efforts to recruit domestic workers under the H-2A Guest Worker Program, but they provide a snapshot of how hard it is to lure Americans to farm labor - and to get growers to use the program.
Just 23 of the estimated 40,900 full-time farmers and ranchers in California petitioned this year to bring in foreign farmworkers through legal means, the government data showed.
The Labor Department did not respond to a request for comment about the findings.
More than half of farmworkers in the United States are illegal immigrants, according to the Labor Department.