Syrian forces fired shells at a central city that has come to symbolize the anti-government uprising Monday, activists said, while the country's Muslim Brotherhood branch said it would work for a democratic state if President Bashar Assad falls.
The announcement by the exiled Syrian Muslim Brotherhood was an appeal by the Sunni Muslim group to minorities who fear for their place in a post-Assad Syria.
Since the uprising started last March with protests calling for political reform, it has stoked tensions among Syria's varied religious and ethnic groups.
Many in the opposition are from the country's Sunni majority. Religious minorities — Christians, Shiites and Alawites, who include Assad — have largely stuck by the regime, fearing new rulers could threaten their communities.
Speaking to reporters in Turkey, Brotherhood official Ali Bayanouni said the group would not monopolize power.
"The regime now is accusing the Muslim Brotherhood of trying to control Syria alone and of having aims of being the only rulers of Syria in the future," he said Sunday. "We are here today to reassure everyone that we will cooperate with all the other partners in the Syrian opposition to build a new Syria, a free Syria, a democratic Syria, and we will not attempt to the be the only ruling party in Syria."
The group issued a 10-point statement on the future of Syria, calling for a modern, democratic state with equality among all citizens and respect for human rights.
The movement has had no strong presence inside Syria since 1982, when Assad's father and predecessor, Hafez, ordered the military to quell a Brotherhood rebellion in the central city of Hama, sealing off the city in an assault that killed between 10,000 and 25,000 people.
Membership in the group inside Syria is punishable by death, but the group has remained active outside Syria's borders.
Syria's uprising has become increasingly militarized, with many in the opposition arming themselves in self-defense or to attack government troops. The U.N. says more than 8,000 people have been killed in the yearlong conflict.
The U.S., Europe and many Arab countries have condemned violent crackdowns by Assad's security forces and called for him to resign.
International envoy Kofi Annan said Monday that there can be no deadline for ending the Syria crisis, but it can't be allowed to drag on indefinitely.
"I told the parties on the ground: they can't resist the transformational winds that are blowing," he said. "They have to accept that reforms have to come, change has to come, and that is the only way to deal with the situation."
While the U.N. is not discussing military intervention, Annan said it could send teams to monitor an eventual cease-fire.
Turkey, which once had strong ties to Damascus, has now become a tough critic, even allowing opposition groups to organize on its soil.
A Foreign Ministry official said Monday that Turkey was closing its embassy in Damascus because of security concerns. The Turkish ambassador and other diplomats will return to Turkey, he said, speaking on condition of anonymity in line with regulations.
Turkey's consulate in the northern city of Aleppo will remain open, according to a statement posted on the embassy's website late Sunday.
Norway also said Monday it was closing its embassy.
The situation in Syria is set to be a primary topic at an Arab League summit opening in Baghdad on Tuesday.
Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari told reporters Monday he believes Arab leaders will agree on a "doable" solution to end the conflict in Syria in line with Arab League proposals.
"It's not up to other countries to dictate to the Syrians what kind of leaders they have or don't have," he said. "I don't think there will be a call on Bashar to step aside."
A previous effort to stop the violence by sending Arab monitors failed to stop the violence, and opposition leaders accused the Assad regime of using the mission as a stalling tactic.
Syria, whose Arab League membership has been suspended, will not attend the summit.
Assad's forces kept up offensives against opposition areas on Monday, but they faced resistance from armed rebels in some places. Activists said regime forces shelled parts of the central city of Homs and carried out arrests raids elsewhere.
The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said nine civilians were killed in Homs out of the day's total death toll of 19. Two of the dead appeared to have been tortured, it said. Both were recently arrested in the southern province of Daraa.
Two rebels were killed in clashes with goverment soldiers, 11 of whom were killed in rebel attacks.
Another group gave much higher casualty figures. The Local Coordination Committees said 59 people were killed across Syria, 33 of them in Homs province. It said government forces appeared to be preparing to retake rebel-held parts of the country's third largest city.
The groups' numbers could not be independently verified.
The Syrian government blames the uprising on armed extremists backed by a foreign conspiracy and cites insurgent attacks to support its case.
The state news agency said on Monday that Syrian troops foiled an attempt by an "armed terrorist group" to sneak into the country from Turkey. It said the troops killed and wounded some of the attackers and seized their weapons.
It also said an armed group blew up a pipeline used to transport gasoline between the central cities of Homs and Hama. The Syrian Oil Ministry is working to repair the pipe, it said.